Andover's Chem 550/580: 

Advanced Chemistry





Table of Contents




(Note:  You should have a periodic table with element symbols and names, atomic numbers, and average atomic masses as well as a scientific calculator as you use this textbook.)




Chapter 1:  Converting Units and Rounding Answers


Section 1-1:  Converting Units Using Dimensional Analysis

Section 1-2:  Significant Figures

Section 1-3:  Rounding Answers

Section 1-4:  Density

Section 1-5:  Experiment – Determining the Density of a Solid by Water Displacement




Chapter 2:  The Mole


Section 2-1:  Introduction to Avogadros Number and the Mole

Section 2-2:  Molar Mass

Section 2-3:  Converting Between  Mass and Number of Atoms or Molecules




Chapter 3:  Composition of Compounds and Experimental Determination of Chemical Formulas


Section 3-1:  Percent Composition by Mass

Section 3-2:  Determination of Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Section 3-3:  Experiment – Determining the Formula of a Hydrate

Section 3-4:  Experiment – Combustion Analysis




Chapter 4:  Balancing Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry


Section 4-1:  Balancing Chemical Equations and States of Matter

Section 4-2:  Mole Ratios and Stoichiometry

Section 4-3:  Limiting Reagents

Section 4-4:  Percent Yield




Chapter 5:  Gases


Section 5-1:  The Ideal Gas Law

Section 5-2:  Gas Stoichiometry

Section 5-3:  Determining Molar Mass of a Gas and Gas Density

Section 5-4:  Other Gas Laws

Section 5-5:  Measuring Pressure With Barometers and Manometers

Section 5-6:  Collecting Gases Over Water

Section 5-7:  Experiment - Determining the Gas Constant R

Section 5-8:  Root-Mean-Square Speed and Graham's Law




Chapter 6:  Solutions


Section 6-1:  Molarity

Section 6-2:  Solution Stoichiometry

Section 6-3:  Dilution



Chapter 7:  Atomic Structure


Section 7-1:  Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

Section 7-2:  Average Atomic Mass

Section 7-3:  Atomic Orbitals and Electron Configurations

Section 7-4:  Orbital Diagrams

Section 7-5:  Quantum Numbers



Chapter 8:  Trends in the Periodic Table


Section 8-1:  Group Names

Section 8-2:  Atomic and Ionic Radius

Section 8-3:  Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity



Chapter 9:  Chemical Bonding and Nomenclature


Section 9-1:  Relationship Between Groups and Number of Valence Electrons

Section 9-2:  Electronegativity

Section 9-3:  Ionic Bonding and Ionic Nomenclature

Section 9-4:  Molecular Compounds, Covalent Bonding, and Lewis Structures

Section 9-5:  Bond Length, Resonance, and Formal Charge

Section 9-6:  Nomenclature of Binary Molecular Compounds

Section 9-7:  Introduction to Organic Nomenclature

Section 9-8:  Names of Common Acids




Chapter 10:  Chemical Tests and Chemical Reaction Types


Section 10-1:  Laboratory Tests to Identify Chemicals

Section 10-2:  Diatomic Nonmetals

Section 10-3:  Combustion of Organic Compounds

Section 10-4:  Reactions Involving Metals or Metal Compounds

Section 10-5:  Aqueous Ionic Compounds and Molarity of Ions

Section 10-6:  Solubility Rules, Precipitation Reactions, and Net Ionic Equations

Section 10-7:  Acid + Base Neutralization Reactions and Molecular Equations

Section 10-8:  Experiment – Acid + Base Titration




Chapter 11:  Molecular Geometry, Polarity of Molecules, and Advanced Bonding Theory


Section 11-1:  Molecular Geometry:  Using VSEPR Theory to Determine Three-Dimensional Shapes and Bond Angles

Section 11-2:  Polarity of Molecules

Section 11-3:  Hybridization

Section 11-4:  Sigma and Pi Bonds

Section 11-5:  Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory




Chapter 12:  Crystal Types and Intermolecular Forces


Section 12-1:  Crystal Types

Section 12-2:  Intermolecular Forces

Section 12-3:  Like Dissolves Like and Solubility




Chapter 13:  Thermochemistry


Section 13-1:  Enthalpy of Reaction, H

Section 13-2:  Estimating H Using Bond Energies

Section 13-3:  Calculating H Using Hesss Law

Section 13-4:  Calculating H Using Standard Enthalpies of Formation, Hf

Section 13-5:  Heat Transfer and the First Law of Thermodynamics

Section 13-6:  Experiment - Determining the Specific Heat of a Metal Using Calorimetry

Section 13-7:  Experiment – Determining H Using Calorimetry 

Section 13-8:  H for Changes of Physical State and Heating/Cooling Curves

Section 13-9:  Experiment – Determining Hfusion of Ice

Section 13-10: Lattice Energy and the Born-Haber Method




Chapter 14: Thermodynamics


Section 14-1:  Predicting the Sign of the Entropy Change, S

Section 14-2:  Calculating S° Using Standard Entropies, S°

Section 14-3:  The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Gibbs Free Energy Change, G

Section 14-4:  The Effect of Temperature on G and the Spontaneity of Reactions

Section 14-5:  Calculating G° from Standard Gibbs Free Energies of Formation, Gf°




Chapter 15: Equilibrium


Section 15-1:  Equilibrium Constant, Kc and Kp, Expressions

Section 15-2:  Equilibrium Calculations and RICE Charts

Section 15-3:  Reaction Quotients, Qc and Qp

Section 15-4:  Heterogeneous Equilibria

Section 15-5:  Le Châtelier’s Principle

Section 15-6:  Converting Between Kc and Kp

Section 15-7:  Relationship Between G° and Equilibrium Constants

Section 15-8:  The van't Hoff Equation - Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium Constants

Section 15-9:  The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation - Effect of Temperature on Vapor Pressure




Chapter 16: Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions and Electrochemistry


Section 16-1:  Oxidation and Reduction Half-Reactions

Section 16-2:  Using Oxidation Numbers to Identify Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

Section 16-3:  Balancing Redox Reactions in Aqueous Acidic and Basic Solutions

Section 16-4:  Using a Standard Reduction Potentials Table to Compare Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

Section 16-5:  Calculating E°cell and G° to Determine Spontaneity of Redox  Reactions

Section 16-6:  Redox Reactions of Metals, Acids, and Halogens

Section 16-7:  Experiment – Constructing a Galvanic Cell

Section 16-8:  Nonspontaneous Redox Reactions and Electrolysis

Section 16-9:  Calculating the Equilibrium Constant from E°cell

Section 16-10:  The Nernst Equation - Effect of Concentration




Chapter 17: Acids and Bases


Section 17-1:  Arrhenius Theory, pH, and pOH

Section 17-2:  Monoprotic Strong Acids and Strong Bases

Section 17-3:  Monoprotic Weak Acids

Section 17-4:  Polyprotic Weak Acids and Sulfuric Acid

Section 17-5:  Bronsted Theory

Section 17-6:  Weak Bases

Section 17-7:  Lewis Structures and Acid Strength

Section 17-8:  Hydrolysis – Aqueous Ions as Acids and Bases

Section 17-9:  Reactions of Nonmetal Oxides with Water to Create Oxoacids

Section 17-10:  Experiment – Determining the Molar Mass of an Unknown Monoprotic Weak Acid by Titration

Section 17-11:  pH of Buffer Solutions

Section 17-12:  pH  and Titration Curves

Section 17-13:  Acid-Base Indicators




Chapter 18:  Solubility Equilibrium


Section 18-1:  Solubility Equilibrium reactions and Ksp Expressions

Section 18-2:  Molar Solubility and Ksp Calculations

Section 18-3:  Predicting Precipitation Using Qsp

Section 18-4:  Experiment - Determining Ksp Using pH

Section 18-5:  The Common-Ion Effect on Solubility

Section 18-6:  Fractional Precipitation




Chapter 19:  Chemical Kinetics


Section 19-1:  Collision Theory and Factors That Increase Chemical Reaction Rates

Section 19-2:  Reaction Energy Profiles (Reaction Progress Diagrams)

Section 19-3:  Reaction Mechanisms

Section 19-4:  Catalysis

Section 19-5:  Determining Reaction Order and Rate Law Using Method of Initial Rates

Section 19-6:  Determining Reaction Order and Rate Law Using Concentration Versus Time Data

Section 19-7:  Relationship Between Rate Law and Reaction Mechanism

Section 19-8:  The Arrhenius Equation - Effect of Temperature on Rate Constants




Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry


Section 20-1:  Balancing Nuclear Equations

Section 20-2:  Nuclear Kinetics and Half-Life




Chapter 21:  Colligative Properties


Section 21-1:  Molality

Section 21-2:  Freezing Point Depression, Boiling Point Elevation, and the van't Hoff Factor

Section 21-3: Experiment - Determining Molar Mass Using Freezing Point Depression

Section 21-4:  Raoult's Law and Vapor Pressure